Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a type of protein, which is located on the surface of human body cells. Any mutation in EGFR gene can lead to various types of cancer. EGFR functions as a biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and due to the mutation of EGFR gene a person may suffer from cancer or may have a tumor growth.
Tumors with genetically altered EGFR gene are referred to as EGFR-mutated tumors. EGFR mutation is generally observed in NSCLCs, especially in adenocarcinoma tumors. According to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society, there are around 50% of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in EGFR mutations.
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These mutations are related to micro papillary predominant subtype and the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. EGFR biomarker is used in diagnosis of patients with NSCLC. Targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erotinib is used in the treatment of patients with NSCLC. EGFR biomarker detects the presence of specific alterations in EGFR gene, which may lead to the development of tumor.
Lung cancer is a significant economic burden and is one of the major causes of mortality. According to World Health Organization (WHO), lung cancer is the most common form of cancer in males, with a worldwide incidence of 1.2 Mn. It is also the fourth most common cancer in women, with an incidence of over 0.6 Mn. Lung cancer is estimated to account for 20% of all the cancer-related deaths.
Increasing global prevalence of lung cancer is expected to fuel growth of the global EGFR mutation test market over the forecast period. Increasing adoption of biomarker therapy is also expected to boost growth of the market worldwide over the forecast period.
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According to Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center report, 10% and 35% of NSCLC patients in U.S. and East Asia, respectively, have tumor associated with EGFR mutations. Mutation in EGFR gene occurs in EGFR exons 18–21, which encodes a part of EGFR kinase protein.
These mutations are usually heterozygous, where the mutant allele exhibits gene amplification. Around 90% of these mutations are due to exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R point mutation. According to Annals of Oncology, EGFR mutation testing is required prior to first-line therapy in 81% of the stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients.
Thus, increasing demand for the EGFR mutation test and rising incidence of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation are expected to drive growth of the global EGFR mutation test market over the forecast period.
Increased focus on formation of research consortiums on testing techniques is leading to rise in awareness levels and increased adoption of such methods. In addition, increasing adoption of technique by consumers and availability of wide range of kits, with new and advanced drugs, for EGFR detection are some of the factors expected to fuel growth of the global EGFR mutation test market.
Availability of different methods to detect the abnormalities in the cell and identify the mutation.
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However, less focus on developing techniques for detection tests by companies due to less profitability and lack of awareness among physicians are some of the factors that could hamper growth of the global EGFR mutation test market.
On the basis of region, EGFR mutation test market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the global EGFR mutation test market due to high prevalence of patients with EGFR mutation and large number of facilities for cancer treatment. However, growth in Middle East and African regions is expected to increase significantly over the forecast period due to increase in incidence of EGFR .
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